Week11: The internet of things (IoT): from networked objects to anticipatory spaces

What is the Internet of Things (IoT)? - LeadSeed

In our final lecture of BCM206, I learned about the IoT (Internet of Things). If we take out a few minutes of our lives and think about what’s happening around. We will see that the internet has been glued to us just like how our life is glued to our bodies. People in today’s world can never think about living without the internet. Rather they want the technology to be more advanced. If we take a look, whenever we want to learn about something, whenever we are lost in our daily life, or whenever we want a better life, we will go and take a look at the internet. The Internet has made our life’s much more easier and convenient.

The Internet of Things (LoT)

Smart House - 4 Photos - Shopping & Retail -

According to (Mitew, 2014), “the IoT stands for the connection of usually trivial material objects to the internet – ranging from toothbrushes to shoes or umbrellas”. The term Internet of Things (IoT) coined in 1999 at the MIT Media Lab. IoT is something where physical objects are connecting to the internet. Anything which has a connection with the internet. If we look at our daily life, what is something that is not being connected with the internet? Before people at least used to turn on/off their lights or air conditioner by pressing a button. However, today due to the smart homes, you can just relax on your sofa and command the internet to turn something on/off, or even increase your Tv’s volume. Isn’t that amazing? All things in your house are being connected with the internet, the TV, smart door, refrigerator, and all other things at home.

The IoT Powers Through Pandemic | PYMNTS.com

The objects connected with IoT has a unique network id just like the barcode on our laptops on refrigerators, the network id sensors everything and allows it to dynamically register changes to its environment. Moreover, the network address makes it uniquely identifiable than all other things. All the information is storing and being processed in the cloud.

However, even though our lives are becoming very convenient due to the Internet of Things, we all are becoming lazier and lazier. Not only that, all our information and data are being recorded on the internet. The internet knows what we are doing for the whole day. although the internet is a good thing, our privacy is being recorded and monitored.

Introduction to the Internet of Things (IoT), Node Red, and the Raspberry  Pi · nebraska-gencyber-modules


Mitew, T. (2014). The Fibreculture Journal. Do Objects Dream of an Internet of Things?, 1–24. Retrieved from https://ro.uow.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2834&context=lhapapers

Week 10: Dark fiber: exploits, botnets and cyberwar

Most famous hackers in history - Panda Security Mediacenter

In my last blog, I talked about the nice and positive part of hacking. How some organizations are out there trying to bring a change in everyone’s life by exposing the corrupted people and scandals all over the world. But as we know, when there are good people, there will be some bad people as well. That’s a part of this world. Therefore, today I will be talking about the black-hat hackers who hack people’s accounts and steal their bank accounts and personal data. Before this lecture, I only knew a little about black-hat hackers as I thought hackers only hack our social media accounts and that’s it- nothing more serious. But today I got to know how dangerous it can be.

Hacking for the greater good

According to (Spyd3r, 2002), “It all began in the 1960s at MIT, the origin of the term “hacker”, where extremely skilled individuals practiced hardcore programming in FORTRAN and other older languages” In the early 1960s when the word “hacker” formed, no one knew much about hackers. Hackers were known for locking themselves up in the room for the whole day programming. People didn’t really what hacking is. The term “hackers” was considered as the expert of computers. However, slowly we all started knowing who a hacker is after the birth of the internet and social media because they are now a part of our lives. almost every one of us has social media accounts and we all know that our account can be hacked and our privacy can be leaked out. However, some groups of hackers don’t only leak out personal data, but also steal people’s credit cars and money. 


Hacker lulz (@Hackerlulz) | Twitter

LulzSec is a group of people who hacked lots of organizations accounts and websites, they also tried hacking the FBI’s website, but were later caught. “Lulz” stands for a laugh and “sec” for Security (Arthur, 2013). the group would find out the weakness in the sites and hacks the websites. they have hacked lots of famous organizations such as Sony’s Play station Network where they stole 24.6 million customers’ private data (Arthur, 2013). Moreover, LulzSec members were all strangers to each other, they have never met anyone in the group before. After they tried to hack the FBI’s website, because of one of the hackers’ silly mistakes, the FBI was able to trace him and they got caught after. When they were for their intentions of hacking, they valued seeking people’s attention rather than earning money.

Therefore, we should be aware when we give out our credit card details on the internet, whatever we do on the internet is being monitored and we should be aware that there can be hackers.

Posts tagged as #lolsec | Wopita


Arthur, C. (2013, May 16). LulzSec: What they did, who they were and how they were caught. Retrieved November 17, 2020, from https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2013/may/16/lulzsec-hacking-fbi-jail

Spyd3r April 8. (2002, March 11). The History Of Hacking. Retrieved November 17, 2020, from https://www.helpnetsecurity.com/2002/04/08/the-history-of-hacking/

Week 9: Anonymous resistance: hackers, Lulz and whistle-blowers

Been hacked? What you need to know about the new cybercrime | Times2 | The  Times

When you hear the word “hacker”, what comes to your mind? A bad person? Negative thoughts? Or do you start feeling nervous? Well, a hacker is not always the bad guy, some hackers will hack your social media accounts but some hackers are doing a favor for the world by exposing the corrupted government and trying to give the people freedom of speech. Firstly, let’s take a look at what is the definition of a hacker.

Hacker: someone who gets into other people’s computer systems without permission to find out information or to do something illegal, (HACKER: meaning in the Cambridge English Dictionary). There is various kind of definitions depending on the intentions of the hacker. I have chosen this definition because the hacker will never get your permission to access your computer system nor will the government ever allow. Therefore, some famous hacking organizations hack the government’s website and leak out their true face to the public. 



One of the organization is the Wikileaks, this organization was founded in 2006 by an activist named Julian Assange. It is a not-for-profit media organization and the aims of it are to disseminate the original document from anonymous sources and leakers (Zittrain, 2010). In other words, the purpose is to leak all the information of the government, military, or scandals and show the true color of them. Until today, WikiLeaks managed to produce thousands of documents for the public. 

One of their most famous leaks was the Afghan and Iraq War in July 2019 and October 2010 where they were able to produce 466,743 documents (Zittrain, 2010). It is a very good initiative by the founder of WikiLeaks to allow people to look at the truth and beware of it. 

Anonymous Group

There is one more organization called “The Anonymous Group”. Its main objectives are to raise awareness and promote freedom of speech. According to (Marathe, 2020), “The group has been described as a decentralized online collective with no particular political affiliation”. The people who are handling this organization are anonymous and their organization got a success and has been accepted by many people.

One of their latest activities was related to the “Black lives matter” after the death of George Floyd. Anonymous was able to hack into the police website and they got a very good response from people on Twitter and helped boost anonymous groups Twitter by sharing and retweeting their tweets.

Therefore, as we see that there are some organizations hacking world profile websites, government websites, and letting people see the truth. The public has also shown great support in return by following them everywhere is everyone is eager to k now the truth. After this lecture, I learned that not all hackers are the bad guys.

hackers Memes & GIFs - Imgflip


HACKER: Meaning in the Cambridge English Dictionary. (n.d.). Retrieved November 17, 2020, from https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/hacker

Marathe, O. (2020). Explained: Everything you need to know about the hacktivist group Anonymous. Retrieved November 17, 2020, from https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/hacktivist-group-anonymous-george-floyd-protests-6446993/

Zittrain, J. (2010). Everything You Need to Know About Wikileaks. Retrieved November 17, 2020, from https://www.technologyreview.com/2010/12/09/120156/everything-you-need-to-know-about-wikileaks/

Week 8: Networked insurgencies: Social media revolutions and meme warfare

In week 8, I learned how social media and meme warfare is being used in the world to pass around some knowledge about a topic to a billion people in real-time coordination. Meme warfare is a very interesting topic as before learning about meme welfare, I never thought that memes have a hidden motive or a reason behind it. I used to think memes are just to make people laugh, but now I got to learn that memes are also used to pass messages and information around the globe.

Arab Spring - Wikipedia

Since the first day of the internet, it has helped a lot of people in many different ways. Today, if you encounter any injustice or harassments, just post about it on social media, and the whole world will help fight for you and make sure you get justice. the internet has become a tool to glue the world together when there’s injustice. In real life example, there have been many times when the internet was used to help spread messages and get people justice. For example the “Arab spring”. It all happened in Tunisia where a man killed himself on a street by setting himself on fire. Tunisians took to the streets and demonstrated against the corrupted government (Blakemore, 2019). And as a result, the autocratic president, Zine al-Abidine Ben Ali fled to Saudi Arabia after a month of protest. The protest was being recorded and shared all over the internet which boosts up other Arab countries and the people started fighting for their rights. 

LUC Alumni Relations - School of Communication 2017 Fall Art Exhibit: Internet  Memes:Internet Folk

The internet has helped people to fight for their rights as all the protest movements are being recorded and shared all over the world. It has helped people to become one in difficult situations and even the powered people or government can’t do anything against so many people if they stand together.

The meme is also something that is being used a lot to pass messages around. According to (Ascott, 2020) “Meme warfare now more often refers to using memes as individual weapons of information warfare”. It is being used as a weapon so that it can spread all over the world. Today, I found that when memes are not only for laughing but it has had a hidden motive behind it. 

How to Make a Meme | TechSmith


Ascott, T. (2020, February 18). How memes are becoming the new frontier of information warfare. Retrieved November 16, 2020, from https://www.aspistrategist.org.au/how-memes-are-becoming-the-new-frontier-of-information-warfare/

Blakemore, E. (2019, June 14). What was the Arab Spring and what caused it to happen? Retrieved November 16, 2020, from https://www.nationalgeographic.com/culture/topics/reference/arab-spring-cause/

Week 6: Digital Feudalism

This week, I learned about feudalism and the walled garden. I learned how everything on the internet is being controlled by big media giants like Facebook and Instagram.


Feudalism is vague and widely contested term from the European medieval societies of the 10th to 13th centuries (Cartwright, 2018). It is a connection between the lord and the vassal to classify around property and allegiance. The Lord protects and gives land to the vassal to live. The vassal would support the lord by growing farm products. However, the lord decides how the land will be used, and the vassal cannot leave or sell the land without the Lord’s permission. In other words, the lord has the full power to do whatever they want.

Real Prydain: Feudalism | Prydain Wiki | Fandom

Digital Feudalism:

Today, digital feudalism also works the same way as feudalism used to work. The more advanced technology is enhancing, the more better and convenient is becoming for the world. However, due to advanced technology, it has become easier for the big media giant to control the people and that’s how it becomes digital feudalism/ feudalism 2.0.

IBM Think 2018, Brain and Internet Connection and Digital Feudalism

Although users are technically speaking free, stacks control all characteristics of information being used. The content cannot appear on the stack without permission and the stack decides how you use the content. Not only it requires permission, but all the data, information, and content created, consumed, and shared by the user is monitories. Although we think all our data and privacy on Facebook are private, Facebook can still see our data and we can only post content that is allowed by Facebook. Whatever we search or look on Facebook is being recorded. Therefore, Feudalism still exists today and we all are being controlled by the big media giants.


Cartwright, M. (2020), Feudalism. Retrieved from https://www.ancient.eu/Feudalism/

Week 5: The Attention Economy

The Attention Economy - How They Addict Us - YouTube

This week, I learned about “The attention economy”. It is a relationship between the online users and the market, where the market will forcefully seek online user’s attention to their product.


According to (Kane, 2019), “a selective focus on some of the stimuli that we are currently perceiving while ignoring other stimuli from the environment”. We only concentrate on some factors that we are experiencing and ignores other external factors in the environment.

The Attention Economy:

Digital products are fighting for consumers’ restricted attention. The global economy constantly revolves around  the cycle of human interest and how that attention is absorbed by goods.

In today’s world, where everyone is busy with their smartphones or other electric gadgets, it is very difficult to gain attention from the public for market products. Therefore, the market thought about why not gain the attention of the public through electric gadgets which everyone is busy with today. It is why today, the market will do anything to make you see their advertisement. No matter you’re playing a game, watching a live stream, or anything, there will be advertising popping up and making you look at the product as long as they want to, and you won’t be able to close the ad even if u want to. Furthermore, sometimes there are some captions and titles which are quite interesting but when the user clicks the link, it turns out to be something else and very unrelated to the topic. They do whatever they can to make sure the users click on their product.

No Time To Pause: The Dark Side Of The Attention Economy

The attention economy affects users in many ways. For instance, it makes users stay online more than their expectations. Like if someone is playing a game or searching for something and an interesting and engaging ad pops up, they will want to look at the ad and what it says, and unfortunately, sometimes when the user opens it, it’s unrelated to the topic.

Means of production content (Legacy Media)

Legacy media is a centralized system and its models show how the information is distributed to the audience and what factors may affect the system. There are four stages in the legacy media paradigms, ideate, produce, distribute and sell –> audience. In this media paradigm, the stage “ideate” gives out information and ideas and then they produce, distribute, and sell. However, the legacy media has a high risk of failure and a high production cost.

Reference :

Lexie, K 2019, “The Attention Economy”, Nielsen Norman Group, 30 June 2019, Retreived from https://www.nngroup.com/articles/attention-economy/>

Project Beta & Reflection

The name of our DA is Simply English. We teach secondary school students English. We choose to teach English because we believe that English is an international language and everyone should learn about it. All of our group member’s strength was also English so we went with our strength. So now, I will talk about how things have gone so far and what changes we made for our DA so far.

Changes in our DA

To start with, during the first week, we thought we should make an Instagram page which will teach expats, locals and immigrants English. However , it didn’t go as planned because we were not able to categorize the age groups of our audience as there are different aged people in ex-pats, immigrants and locals. That’s why we were confused about what content should we provide. Therefore, we came up with teaching primary school students English on Instagram. And finally, we started posting our lessons on Instagram.

However, after 2 weeks, we found out that our followers were not gaining. we only had around 9 followers at that time. So we discussed about it in our consultation and with our group members, we found out that our lessons were very boring and we didn’t have any content to follow. We were just posting random lessons without any flow. Therefore, we thought we should change the layout of our lessons and changed it to animation videos instead of boring posts so that the lessons look more interesting. So we started making the correct content and divided our work accordingly. We also had to change our target audience to students from form 1 to form 3 because primary school student was a very big group. We had to come up with a more specific group. And we also started making the correct contents and divided our work accordingly.

After a few lesson posts, our followers were gaining but at a very slow speed. We again had to come together and figure out why is that so and how can we improve it. We found out that our lessons were not well organized as whenever we post a new lesson, the older lessons would just go down and it was very difficult for a new user to scroll down to the very first lesson. That was a very big concern for us as we didn’t know what to do.

After having a consultation, we thought we should make an additional platform that will help us organize our lessons well. Therefore, we created a Wix website and posted our lessons there. we also started sharing our website on our Instagram page and our followers started growing gradually. We now have successfully gained more than 100 followers. Therefore, we now post all of our lessons on the website and changed our Instagram page into a promotional page for our website. because there are lots of young people especially our target audience who use Instagram. We thought we can promote our website on Instagram and can gain a lot of attention from Instagram users (our target audiences).

Our lessons on the website are more well organized as we use both text and visual elements to make our lessons more interesting. We categorized 3 different sections (form1, form 2, form 3) on our website so that it will be easier for users to know what section should they choose according to their level. In our lesson, we first discuss the topic and then at the end, post a small video clip that talks more about the topic in a detailed way.

We hope we can keep it up and make more changes to improve our DA to get more followers. We will keep on working hard and hope students get to learn something from us.


Discuss any similarities you see between visions/dreams about the telegraph and the Internet (or social media like Twitter and Facebook) we have now.

In todays world, if we ask anyone what the internet is, most of the people will know about it. But what about the telegraph? Do todays people know what telegraph is? Do they know the history behind it? Even I didn’t know much about telegraph until I heard about it. For people in 19th century, Telegraph was no smaller than the internet today. What we think, feel about today’s internet, people in the 19th century had the same feelings for the telegraph.

People in the 19th century shares the same dreams/visions to what we dream about. According to (History.com Editors, 2009), Telegraph was invented in the 1830’s by Samuel Morse which helped people to communicate from a longer distance in a short period of time. In 1938, it was a matter of time when he finally designed a device that can help to communicate with each other. He successfully send his first message from Wellington to Baltimore by using Morse codes in 1844.

People at that time dreamt that now they no longer will have to go on a horse or a ship physically to send messages to all over around. They can be able to see the word by staying at home and the distance was not a problem at all. As we all know, time is one of the most valued thing in our life, people dreamed of sending messages in a very short period of time. Information flowed like it flows nowadays through internet.

The Internet helps users to communicate over long distances using interconnected networks, just like the telegraph network (Strandage, n.d.). People today also can send messages around the world in seconds and can have a world tour using google maps. Moreover, both the telegraphs and internets vison is to make our daily lives more easy and convenient in may aspects. Both telegraph and the internet has made peoples thinking more open minded as people can be able to look and learn other peoples culture which they have never seen or heard of.

Telegraph and internet also made possible for new business practices, promotion of their products and ideas (Strandage, n.d.). And the most importantly, people during the telegraph generation have dreamt to live a life what we’re living, and we are also dreaming to have more advanced technology.


History.com Editors. (2009, November 09). Morse Code & the Telegraph. Retrieved from https://www.history.com/topics/inventions/telegraph

Strandage, T. (n.d.). The Victorian Internet. Retrieved from http://www2.southeastern.edu/Academics/Faculty/scraig/standage.html

BCM 222: Newspaper Industry

What was news like before 19th century? What’s the content mainly about? How ‘old’ was the news usually?

In a generation of advanced technology, with everything being so convenient and fast, we can never imagine how life can be without the internet. Imagine spreading a news which takes so long to reach the audience. The longer the distance is, the more time it takes for a news to be spread. However today, if u want to spread a news all over the world, the internet can help u spread it in seconds. In this blog, I will be introducing how news was like before the 19th century.

In the 19th century, the news was spread by the newspapers. According to (History of nineteenth-century newspapers n.d.), In 1814, an editorial in the London Times announced the first newspaper printed by a stream press. Steam power was something that changed the whole process of manufacturing, production and the distribution of newspaper. It increased the scale, speed and the affordability of the newspaper. People had to pay taxes for the newspaper because of the production of the paper. Later, a device invented by Samuel Morse, “Telegraph” was used to transmit information farther and to more people at very fast speed than ever before. The Morse codes were used to transmit news between towns, between ships at seas and from land to sea (Holtzapple, 2015).

According to (American Newspapers, 1800-1860: An Introduction n.d.) The content of the news was quite similar as today, as they also had a frontpage, a nameplate at the newspapers title with place, date of publication. The content was mainly about what’s happening in the pollical or in the daily world. Newspapers also had some advertisements promoting companies or products.


American Newspapers, 1800-1860: An Introduction. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.library.illinois.edu/hpnl/tutorials/antebellum-newspapers-introduction/

History of nineteenth-century newspapers. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://ncna.dh.chass.ncsu.edu/infonetworks/history.php

Holtzapple, A. (2015, October 24). Evolution of Communication: 1800s and 1900s: OCN. Retrieved from https://www.onecallnow.com/blog/02/evolution-of-communication-1800s-and-1900s/

Pitch Presentation

Pitch Video

In this blog, I will be explaining my pitch in more detailed way. Firstly, in the video, I have mentioned my media niche, the background, some roles social media is playing on cricket finally discussed my 2 approaches that will help me to investigate my research question.


Both the approaches “Auto-ethnography” and “Observation” will help me to investigate my research question. My experience in using cricket websites/ apps or following cricket on social media platforms like YouTube, Instagram and twitter will help me have a better understanding on how social media is been putting an impact on each anything related to cricket. I will observe the cricketers on how they stay connected with their fans and see what impact do their fans puts on them. Observation is a very good method as by doing so, I can receive primary data. If I observe myself I will be able to understand more and will be able to investigate my research question.

Roles of social media

Another role social media has been playing towards cricket is by helping the players improve their fitness and health. For instance, as we all know, injuries is one of the most biggest nightmares for a sportsman. However, what players do nowadays is to search for exercises on social media that can help them prevent from injuries or what exercises can help them have a speedy recovery from the injury. They also attend some exercise training programs anytime anywhere without going to the physios physically. This shows that how social media has helped the players improve their fitness in a very simple and fast methods so that they can preform well for their teams.

As I said that I’ve been following cricket since my childhood, I always watch cricket videos on social media platforms like YouTube or Facebook. I am also following some of the cricketer’s YouTube channels such as “Ramiz Speaks” and “Shahid Afridi”. Both of them are former cricketers of Pakistan. I like “Ramiz speaks” videos because he usually analysis or predict cricket matches before and after every cricket match. He is one of the experts, so that’s why I usually get to know what I may expect from the matches or know in what expects did the team performed well or not. The other YouTube channel “Shahid Afridi” I follow is because he is my all time favorite cricketer. The cricketers now can know what their fans are expecting from in their matches. It has become very easy for everyone to stay connected with their fans and idols when compared to the early 21st century.

YouTube Links: (The players I follow on their YouTube channels)

Ramiz Speaks: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yRHGnbY35xw

Shahid Afridi: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCIhGXeOeWeEPxMLbCrUvf-g

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