BLOG 4: Academic Research And Ethical Issues

In my last 3 blogs, I described about my media niche, mapped out the field site and planned out my research question. In this blog, I will highlight the background academic research which will insist me to understand the theoretical framework in analyzing my research data and field notes. I will also write down the ethical issues that might arise during my research and how will I manage them.

Background Academic Research:

International Cricket council

Cricket is the second most popular sports in the world just after soccer with 2.5 billion fans worldwide (Top 10 List of the World’s Most Popular Sports, n.d.). Social media has helped to helped to boost up the popularity of cricket, for instance, due to the broadcasting of live streams, it has been very convenient for people to watch cricket. If we compare cricket with and without social media, there were very few TV channels who would live stream cricket matches but the quality was very bad so the fans had to take out their time and go to the stadiums in order to watch the matches. However, now with social media, cricket fans can stay wherever they are and can watch cricket on their smartphones like Facebook, YouTube Livestream, or other cricket apps. For instance, according to the (ICC, 2019), “Men’s 2019 Cricket World Cup live coverage reached a global cumulative average of 1.6 billion viewers”. This shows that how social media is helping to increase the popularity of cricket. Fans not only support the men’s cricket but also follows the women’s cricket. For instance, women’s cricket at the start of 21st century was very quiet. It was very rare for broadcasters to live stream women’s cricket, and very less women’s were interested in cricket. However today, women’s cricket matches also have almost the same support like the men’s crickets.

Social media has not only put an impact on cricket fans but also it has helped cricketers in many ways. For instance, social media has been developed and it has helped players not only improved their performances but also taught them ways to prevent injuries (Noorbhai and Noakes, 2015). As we all know, injuries has a very old relationship with sports, therefore, cricketers have to take care of their physical health in order to stay fit and focused. With the help of social media, (Noorbhai and Noakes, 2015) suggests that “cricketers risk of injury can also be reduced by more specific eccentric exercise training programs”. This means that cricketers can now watch videos and programs on YouTube or other channels talking about the prevention of injuries and learn about it.

Moreover some former and current cricketers have made up their YouTube channels to stay connected with their fans and know what they expect from them on the field. It gives them an extra motivation when they talk to their fans and how the fans react to them.

Ethical Issues:

In order to investigate my research ethically, I will have to be a aware of some ethical issues such as cautiousness and carefulness. As one of my approach I’m using to investigating my research question is “observation”, I will have to be very careful and cautious when observing the data which will help to investigate my research question. While observing the data, I will use paper and pen to drop down all the relevant data’s that I feel its important so that i wont miss out with something.

As I am using the Auto-ethnography approach, I will have to be aware of the bias. I will be using my own experience to investigate my research so I have to be careful not to be unfair with any team or players. In order to avoid bias, I will have to double confirm and check whether the information is correct or not.


ICC (2019). 2019 Men’s Cricket World Cup Most Watched Ever. [online] Retrieved from <’s%20Cricket%20World,live%20cricket%20around%20the%20world

Noorbhai, H. and Noakes, T., 2015. Advances In Cricket In The 21St Century: Science, Performance And Technology. [online] Retrieved from <>

n.d. Top 10 List Of The World’s Most Popular Sports. [online] Retrieved from



My group thought to make a digital artifact about English related as we all went through our strength, and found out that we all are good at English So we thought why not teach people English? So we created a page on Instagram and named it as ‘SimplyEnglish”.

Our target audience are the locals/ expats/ immigrants who are weak at interacting in English and want’s to learn English. We know how important English is in this generation as its an international language. You can use it as a mean to interact with other cultural backgrounds.


Our approach to teach English is very simple. We will be creating a page on Instagram named as Simple English. We choose Instagram because its very convenient to produce contents such as posting pictures and sharing videos. Moreover, Instagram is one of the most used social media platform in the world and we think it will be easy to attract more people especially the teenagers. We will be creating quizzes to find out whether our page is actually helping our followers to learn English and will be getting feedbacks from our followers so that we can improve. We will be producing content such as Instagram posts (pictures, videos), Instagram stories and IGTV. We will set up a schedule so that we can follow it and post relevant lessons on Instagram.


We believe that teaching English is relevant as how important the English language is in this world. Where ever you go, you must bring English along with you. So that’s why, its very important for everyone to learn English. Its never too late to learn a new language. Moreover, it can benefit us also as we can also learn something which we are unaware of.

We hope we can be able to teach more and more people who are struggling in speaking English.

YouTube Link of the video:


In blog 2, I talked about the cyberspace and how the network changed from centralized to decentralized network system. I mentioned how Paul Baran in 1964, proposed a decentralized network system which has no central hub and was designed to work even if broken. In this blog, I will be talking the OODA Loop which was created for the Air Force so that they can be able to send and receive message instantly.

The OODA Loop

A USAF Colonel named John Boyd discovered the OODA Loop which is a different way for fast decision makings. So now, what does OODA Loop mean? It stands for Observe, Orient, Decide and Act. John Boyd was a fighter pilot and a fighter pilot have to work fast (“OODA Loop”, 2020). Even if they take a single second to take a decision, they might lost their lives. Consequently, it made John Boyd to think about something which can help them to make decisions efficiently and quickly. As the centralized network system takes time, the greater the distance is, the more time it takes. For example, if a sender send a message, The message has to go through the center in order to proceed to the receiver. That’s why it takes time for the message to be received.


OODA LOOP: What You Can Learn from Fighter Pilots About Making Fast and Accurate Decisions. (2020, March 01). Retrieved from

Blog 2: From Telegraph to Cyberspace

In the first blog, I talked about how was the communication before the 19th Century and how was the telegraph invented. Today, in this blog, I’ll be talking about the journey from telegraph to cyberspace.

I talked about how telegraph made it easier for people to send messages in minutes instead of using a ship or a horse which may take a lot of days. Distance was no longer an issue. Telegraph broke the personal border and space, made a real time coordination and control which helped the militaries and the empires to grow stronger.

Mainframe Computer

This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is mainfram.jpg

In 1958, the first computer was invented named IBM AN/FSQ-7, which was a 2000 square meters long and weighted 275 tons. SHOCKED? But that’s the truth! Even I was shocked when I heard it, imagine a computer being the same size of todays football stadium. Consequently, the bigger it is, the bigger space it needs to be stored. It was the first centralized network system which was connected to other computers. A centralized network system means that all other computers were connected to this huge mainframe, therefore, it this mainframe computer collapsed, then all other computers would also not work. This was the biggest worry of the centralized network system.

This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is centralized-decentralized.png

In 1964, Paul Baran created a decentralized network system called ARPAnet. It is a network which has no central hub and was designed to operate even if broken. What changed from the centralized network system is that it removed the center and gave the end notes a control which means that even if it was broken, it wouldn’t effect the whole network system. All nodes were created equal.


What is cyberspace? A network which we all are connected to every day when we’re using our smartphones and computers. According to (Vassilys F, 2004), cyberspace is the name of a physical universe outside of space, characterized by the ability to communicate with people by “icons. waypoints, and artificial words” for interactive existence and interaction. Cyberspace completely changed the world as information started to flow freely in the same space and time. It provides a chance for everyone to communicate easily and to expressed their opinions and exchange information.


Vassilys Fourkas (2004), What is ‘cyberspace’?, Retrieved from’cyberspace’

Research Project BCM 212

As a university student, I found out that many students come across with lots of stress in their university life including myself. I am curious to find out how students equip themselves to overcome with stress. As for me, I use sports whenever I feel stressed about my school assignments or examination. Sport helps me and my body to relax and forget about the school life for a while. It gives an extra energy if I do sport before doing my assignment or preparing myself for examinations. Consequently, I would like to find out whether sports helps to overcome with stress and do other students do sports to tackle with stress.

In order to find out whether sports helps to overcome with stress, I conducted a poll on twitter asking “Does sports helps to overcome the stress of school life?”. There were total of 17 people who voted and 82% of them agreed that sports does helps to overcome the stress of school life. Only 18% of them disagreed with it. Th poll clearly shows that sports does help students overcome stress from school life.

My research question is very relevant as stress has been following students since their first day at school. It is something that you can’t easily tackle with. Lots of students who failed tackling with stress has thought give up and to stop studying. According to (Abouserie, 2006), Students in universities encounter lots of stress in their school life. His study suggests that the highest cause of stress in students were the examination and examination results as students thinks they have too much to learn and they never know what their result might be. Therefore, this research topic is very important and students should know the method of overcoming with stress. therefore, sports is the best option to help them. According to (Abouserie, 2006),Students in universities encounter lots of stress whether its the assignment’s stress, examination’s stress, or the result’s stress. Sports also helps students to get good grades in examination and motivate themselves to do well (Mohammad et al, 2012). Therefore, Stress affect students in getting low grades whereas sports helps them to get good grades.

A research by (Aimee et al, 2010), suggests that there is a relationship between stress and participation in sports. They indicate that sport improves individuals health because of self-determination and social support which is experienced in doing sports. Another researcher (Sylvia 2007), said that sports activities not only have physical and functional aspects, but also have an effective on the self-esteem and social experiences of a person. This shows that sports plays a big role in help students with their social life and boost their self-esteem which will help them to cope with the stress.

Research Aims

My research aim is to find out whether sports helps to overcome with the stress from school life or not. Sport is a fun thing and it helps a person to stay fit as well. therefore, if sports can help students cope with their stress, it will not will solve their problem with stress but also will make them fit. Therefore, I would like to know whether other students also feels the same as me about sports on stress. My target audience will be the students studying in uow college.

There are some researchers who have studied on the sports and stress which will help me with my research as a secondary data. As for my primary data, the poll I conducted on my twitter only had 1 question and there were very few people who joined to vote. Which is why I think the data was not enough to find whether sports helps to cope with stress or not. I will conduct another online survey which will have different types of question regarding my research question. I will include some open-ended question and multiple choice questions.


Abouserie, Reda (2006), Sources and Levels of Stress in relation to Locus of Control and Self Esteem in University Students, Retrieved from

Aimee k & Valeria J. F (2010), Leisure, Stress, and Coping: The Sport Participation of Collegiate Student-Athletes, Retrieved from

Mohammad Y, K, A. Jamal, Umair, A,L, Uzma K. (2012), “Association between Participation in Sports and Academic Achievement of College Students” Retrieved from

 Sylvia V, M (2007), Quality of life and sports activities in patients with hemophilia, Retrieved from

BCM 24Blog 3: Planning my Research

In my second blog, I narrowed down my research question to “How does social media play a role in cricket?” and listed out all the elements which may help me investigate my research question. In this blog, I will be re-polishing and modifying my research question by adding the generational changes to it. For instance, the development of social media from the past generation to this generation. Consequently, my new research question after modifying and adding the generational changes to it is ” How does social media play and change its roles in cricket since the early 21st century?” In this blog, I will address the historical, political, economic and cultural settings brought by cricket.

To start with the historical setting, I have mentioned in my blog 1 about how the representation of cricket from my father’s generation to today, has changed in popularity and its broadcasting with the help of social media. In my father’s generation, there were limited channels broadcasting live cricket matches when compared today. Cricket didn’t anticipate using social media at that time as there were only one or two official websites/apps for the fans to use. Moreover cricketers didn’t have any possible means to communicate with their fans. But today, even though you are busy and can’t watch the live streams, you can just open cricket apps like “cricinfo” or “cricbuzz” and check out your favorite teams scorecard. Cricketers now can communicate with their fans through their social media, YouTube channels or even do a live video chat with their fans. Therefore, cricket now has become very convenient with the help of social media.

The popularity of cricket can also be shown by how women’s cricket has been developed since the early 21st century, for instance, there were very limited women cricket matches when compared to today. There are more and more women gaining interest in cricket today.



I will be observing myself on how social media is playing a role in cricket and assisting with the increase of popularity. I will be looking for cricketers who are engaged with their fans through YouTube channels or other social media platforms to examine how they interact with their fans. Previous research papers by the scholars which have the same research question with mine will also help me with my observation.


I will also use the Auto-ethnography approach to investigate my research question as I am following cricket since my childhood. I would like to share my experience on how I have been engaged with cricket through social media and how cricket is developing with the help of social media. To apply this approach in my investigation, I will be listing out all the activities that I have been doing on social media related to cricket.


Week 1: Define and describe my media niche

Week 2: Map out the field site

Week 3: Planning the approach

Week 4-5: List out al the background research and ethical issues

Week 6-7: Complete the Media Niche pitch

Week 8-11: Process of writing the draft and finalizing it

Social is playing a big role in promoting the sport and this is the reason why I would like to investigate what role social media played to gain the popularity of the sports in the world. I will also investigate the historical, political, economic and cultural settings brought by cricket in my research project.

Blog 1: The Invention of the Telegraph

In our 2nd lecture, we learnt a lot of facts about the communication before the 19th century and how the telegraph was invented.

Ever wondered how it looks like having no means of communication? Before the 19th century, If you want to send a message to someone, the only option you have is to get on a horse and go directly to that person and tell him your message. However, the time it takes you to send a message depends on how far your receiver is. It may take up to days or months to reach the person. But what about in case of emergency? How are you going to send an instant message to let someone know about an emergency? Sadly, people before the 19th century, people were not able to pass around emergency messages instantly.

The first telegraph invented by Samuel Morse

In the 1830’s, a painter named Samuel Morse went through a big tragedy in his life when he was on a work tour and he heard that his wife was mortally ill, before he could reach home, his wife was already dead and buried. This incident gave birth to the new mode of communication as Samuel Morse was eager to design and invent something which can help them to communicate from a long distance in a short period of time. In 1938, it was a matter of time when he finally designed a device that can help to communicate with each other. He successfully send his first message from Wellington to Baltimore by using Morse codes in 1844.

Telegraph causes a dramatic shift in world perception as information can remain from physical material. Telegraph helped the militaries the most as they can get the messages faster. Moreover, the network of nerves of iron wire and it made the world a body. There were too many wires on he road. Information flows already understood how to allow coordination nd control.

How did the telegraph worked?

Telegraph operated by transmitting electrical signals between stations over a wire laid out. In addition to helping to invent the telegraph, Samuel Morse created a code “Morse codes” that allocated a collection of dots and dashes to each letter of the English alphabet and allowed complex messages across telegraph lines.

Not only did telegraph make people communicate with each other by a faster way, it also opened the gates for new inventions like telephone, television, radios and later the internet. After that the technology industry started to grow up gradually, smartphones and the internet replaces the telegraph, cars and planes have replaced the horses for travelling. As a result, today, we cant even imagine how people used to live and communicate before the 19th century,


Alex, T. (2016). A Brief History of Long Distance Communication Retrieved from

A&E Television Networks (2019), Morse Code & the Telegraph Retrieved from

The field site for researching my media niche?

As I have mentioned and introduced my Media Niche in the blog 1, Now in this blog, i will talk about the field site of my media niche.

I have narrowed down my research question to “How does social media play a role in Cricket?”. To find out how cricket uses social media to promote and telecast its cricket matches.

In the diagram above, I have managed to write down all the elements which may help me investigate my research question. I will be talking about them below.

I have listed out all the possible ways of how the cricketers interact with their fans. Whether its online or offline. Cricketers use social media such as twitter or Instagram to stay connected with their fans. Many cricketers and former cricketers have their YouTube channels to discuss what’s happening in the cricket world and in their lives.

Cricket has changed a lot from my father’s generation to my generation. I remember when my father used to watch cricket matches, there were only limited TV channels which used to telecast the live match. However in my generation, there are lots and lots of channels which telecast live matches, and it does not only stream live but also provide cricket scores with ball by ball commentary on the official cricket websites and apps. There are YouTube channels where the officials or the former players discuss the match when it finishes. A former Pakistani cricketer’s YouTube channel called “Ramiz Speaks” is my favorite.

Some other elements like cricket’s history, related individuals, officials and cricket boards and their duties are also mentioned in the diagram.

To conclude, all these elements are related to the media and how fast the advance technology is growing gradually. I hope the diagram will help to investigate my research question.

BCM241: Blog 1: Media Niche~ CRICKET

Week 1

Me representing Pakistan club in a cricket match

Since my childhood, I love cricket. I could spend a whole day doing cricket stuff. No matter its about playing, watching, talking or reading about cricket. There are days when I’m having a tough day from my college life with my assignments, what I normally do to make myself rest and relax for a while is, grab my phone, open YouTube and start watching cricket videos.

How I started playing cricket and gained so much interest about it? When I was young, my father was a very big fan of cricket, although he didn’t played cricket , but he used to watch every single cricket match on the TV. Whenever there was a cricket match, he would call all his friends at our house to watch the match together. From there, I also started gaining interest in cricket and would go out the playgrounds and play with my friends.

I would dream about representing my country in a Cricket World cup in future. However, I couldn’t make my dream into a reality because I’m living in Hong Kong. Cricket is not that popular in Hong Kong when compared to other Asian Countries. Rather Hong Kong is much famous for getting a degree in a University and start doing a job. same happened with me, I started focusing more time on my studies and put cricket at a side. Now I play cricket very often like once a week. However, I never miss any single cricket match Live on TV.

2 teams competing with each other
in a world cup in England.

I am following Cricket and its players on almost all of my social media apps. I used to have only 1 or 2 social media apps at that time but when I got to know that most of the players are on Twitter, I installed Twitter on my smartphone and started following them. I would go onto the Twitter and Instagram to find out what my favorites players are doing at the moment. I have also liked all the cricket pages on Facebook and would watch cricket videos whenever I’m free. I always want to stay connected with cricket so I have also installed some cricket apps like ESPNCricinfo on my smartphone, so that I can be aware of the upcoming matches and news about cricket. when I don’t have time to watch live stream, I would just follow the match on the ESPNCricinfo and see the live scorecards.

I always had a desire to meet my favorite cricketers in my life. Because of cricket being lease popular sport in Hong Kong, not many players or cricket teams would come to Hong Kong and play matches here. Cricket is lease popular in Hong Kong because Cricket is only known to the minority group of people in Hong Kong. However, in 2016, due to the demands of cricket fans in Hong Kong, Hong Kong Cricket organized a tournament (Hong Kong T20 Blitz) and invited lots of cricketers from different countries to participate in the tournament. Thanks to the organizers I got a chance to meet my idols in my life.

meeting cricketers in an event organized in HK


Clive, M. (2019), Getty Images.

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